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Stock Market Glossary

A brokerage firm is said to be an agent when it acts on behalf of the client in buying or purchasing of shares. At no point of time in the entire transaction the agent will own the shares.

The acceptance of an application subscribing to the shares of a company. Establishes a contract that underlies an investment through public subscription

A publication, including financial statements and a report on operations, issued by a company to its shareholders at the company’s fiscal year-end.

Buying a security or commodity in one market and simultaneously selling it at a profit in another market, thus taking advantage of temporary price discrepancies.

Arbitration is an alternative dispute resolution mechanism provided by a stock exchange for resolving disputes between the trading members and their clients in respect of trades done on the exchange.

Everything a company or person owns, including money, securities, equipment and real estate. Assets include everything that is owed to the company or person. Assets are listed on a company’s balance sheet or an individual’s net worth statement.

The notification to the seller of an option by the clearing corporation that the buyer of the option is enforcing the terms of the option’s contract.

When the price of the underlying equity, index or commodity equals the strike price of the option

On account of non-delivery of securities by the trading member on the pay-in day, the securities are put up for auction by the Exchange.

Investing a fixed amount of dollars in a specific security at regular set intervals over a period of time. Rupee cost averaging results in a lower average cost per share, compared with purchasing a constant number of shares at set intervals. The investor buys more shares when the price is low and buys fewer shares when the price is high.

Buying more of a security at a price that is lower than the price paid for the initial investment. The aim of averaging down is to reduce the average cost per unit of the investment.

A market in which stock prices are falling.